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r band profitable investing discount

18, T. 4 S., R. 5 E., and sec, 12, T. 4 S., R. 4 E. derived from the investment of such net rents, profits, and other revenues from the sale of. Some of Navellier's current picks include discount retailer Big Lots Money Show is Richard Band Richard Band of Richard E. Band's Profitable Investing. -Ml K.,«7,W. S,.r«- SCHOOLS A INSTRUCTIONS EXCITING PROFITABLE INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY Majcf S-O T-A recording laciliry 80% com- plalerj Designad enjoiswii. IMPORTANT NEWS FOR FOREX SCHEDULE Privacy practices may vary, for example, or any of done continue with. Mark Splashtop This. You can configure new aspiring bloggers.

The objective of transaction price management is to achieve the best net realized price for each order or transaction. Transaction pricing is a game of inches where tens, hundreds, or even thousands of customer- and order-specific pricing decisions daily comprise success or failure—where companies capture or lose percentage points of margin one transaction at a time.

But top management neglect, high transaction volume and complexity, and management reporting shortfalls all contribute to missed transaction pricing opportunities. The complexity and volume of transactions tend to create a smoke screen that makes it nearly impossible for even the rare senior managers who show an interest to understand what is actually happening at the transaction level.

Management information systems most often do not report on transaction price performance, or report only average prices and thus shed no real light on pricing opportunities lost trans action by transaction. The pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band have proven valuable in lifting this smoke screen and providing a foundation to capture opportunity at the transaction level.

The Pocket Price Waterfall. Many companies fail to manage the full range of components that contribute to the final transaction price. Exhibit 2 shows the price components for a typical sale by a manufacturer of linoleum flooring to a retailer. For companies that monitor price performance, invoice price is the measure most commonly used.

Exhibit 2. But in most businesses, particularly those selling through trade intermediaries, invoice price does not reflect the true transaction amount. A host of pricing factors come into play between the set invoice price and the final transaction cost.

Among them: prompt payment discounts, volume buying incentives, and cooperative advertising allowances. Pocket price, not invoice price, is the right measure of the pricing attractiveness of a transaction. And the company paid freight for transporting goods to the retailer on all orders exceeding a certain dollar value. Taken individually, none of these offerings significantly affected profit. Together, however, they amounted to a Otherwise competent senior managers often fail to focus on pocket price because accounting systems do not collect many of the off-invoice discounts on a customer or transaction basis.

For example, payment terms discounts get buried in interest expense accounts, cooperative advertising is included in companywide promotions and advertising line items, and customer-specific freight gets lumped in with all the other business transportation expenses.

Since these items are collected and accounted for on a companywide basis, it is difficult for most managers to think about them—let alone tally them—on a customer-by-customer or transaction-by-transaction basis. Exhibit 2, which shows revenues cascading down from list price to invoice price to pocket price, is called the pocket price waterfall. The average decline from invoice down to pocket price was Companies that do not actively manage the entire pocket price waterfall, with its multiple and highly variable revenue leaks, miss all kinds of opportunities to enhance price performance.

The Pocket Price Band. At any given point in time, no item sells at exactly the same pocket price to all customers. Rather, items sell over a range of prices. This range, given a set unit volume of a specific product, is called the pocket price band. Although the width of this pocket price band may appear large, price bands that are much wider are commonplace.

Exhibit 3. The width and shape of a pocket price band tell a fruitful story. Managers are invariably surprised not only by the width of their pocket price bands but also by the identity of customers at the extremes of the band. Customers perceived by managers as very profitable often end up at the low end of the band, and those perceived as unprofitable at the high end. The shape of the pocket price band provides the astute manager with a graphic profile of a business—depicting, among other things, what percentage of volume sells at deep discounts, whether there exist groups of customers who are willing to pay higher prices, and how appropriately field discounting authority is being exercised.

The Castle Battery Company Case. The following, somewhat disguised, case shows how one company used the pocket price waterfall and band to identify profit leaks and regain control of its pricing system. The Castle Battery Company is a manufacturer of replacement lead-acid batteries for automobiles. Extreme overcapacity in the battery industry and gradual commoditization made it increasingly difficult for Castle to distinguish its products from competitors.

So Castle senior management was skeptical that there was much, if any, potential for price improvement. But Castle managers had entirely overlooked lucrative pricing opportunities at the transaction level. What little transaction price monitoring that Castle did focused exclusively on invoice. Exhibit 4. That focus ignored a big part of the pricing picture—off-invoice discounting. Castle allowed cash discounts of 1.

Additionally, the company granted extended terms payment not required until 60 or 90 days after receipt of a shipment as part of promotional programs or on an exception basis. For this transaction, the extra cost of carrying these extended receivables totaled 22 cents. A special merchandising program in effect at the time of this transaction discounted another 60 cents.

An annual volume rebate, based on total volume and paid at year end, decreased revenues by yet another 74 cents; and freight paid by Castle for shipping the battery to the retailer cost 32 cents. Of course, not all transactions for this particular model of battery had the same pocket price. As Exhibit 5 shows, each element of the pocket price waterfall varied widely by customer and transaction, resulting in a very broad pocket price band.

Why are pocket prices so variable, and can that variability be positively managed? Exhibit 5. Castle managers were quite surprised at the width of the price band for their Power-Lite model, but on reflection, concluded that it was due to differences in account sizes. The company had a clear strategy of rewarding account volume with lower price, rationalizing that cost to serve would decrease with account volume. But when management examined the Power-Lite pocket prices against total account sizes for a sample of 50 accounts, it found no correlation—it was a virtual shotgun blast.

A number of relatively small accounts were buying at very low pocket prices while some very large accounts were buying at very high pocket price levels. Castle managers, perplexed by the scatter of pocket prices by account size, launched an immediate investigation. In most cases, they found no legitimate reason why certain low-volume accounts were paying such discounted prices.

Often, they discovered that these accounts were unusually experienced and clever accounts—customers who had been dealing with Castle for 20 years or more and who knew just whom to call at Castle headquarters to get that extra exception discount, that percentage point of additional co-op advertising, that extra 30 or 60 days to pay. These favorite old accounts were granted extra discounts based on familiarity and relationships rather than on economic justification.

Castle senior management realized that its transaction pricing process was out of control, that decision making up and down the waterfall lacked discipline, and that no one was focusing on the comprehensive total of those decisions. To correct its transaction pricing situation, Castle mounted a three-part program. Management identified the problem accounts and explained the situation and its impact on overall company profits to the sales force.

Then the company gave the sales force nine months to fix or drop those outliers. Second, Castle launched a program to stimulate volume in larger accounts that had higher than average pocket prices compared with accounts of similar size. Sales and marketing personnel investigated them carefully to determine the nonprice benefits to which each was most sensitive. The company increased volume in these accounts not by lowering price but by delivering the specific benefits that were most important to each: higher service levels for some, shortened order lead times for others, more frequent sales calls for still others.

Finally, Castle embarked on a crash program to get the transaction pricing process back under control. This program included, among other components, setting clear decision rules for each discretionary item in the waterfall. Management also set up new information systems to guide and monitor transaction pricing decisions.

And Castle established pocket price as the universal measure of price performance in all of these systems. It began to track and assign, transaction-by-transaction, all of the significant off-invoice waterfall elements that were previously collected and reported only on a companywide basis.

Further, pocket price realization became a major component of the incentive compensation of salespeople, sales managers, and product managers. Castle reaped rich and sustained rewards from these three transaction pricing initiatives. The company realized additional pocket price gains in each of the two subsequent years. Castle also received some unexpected strategic benefits from its newfound transaction pricing capability.

Account-specific pocket price reporting revealed a small but growing distribution channel where Castle pocket prices were consistently higher than average. The fresh and more detailed business perspective that Castle senior managers gained from their transaction pricing involvement became the catalyst for an ongoing stream of similar strategic insights.

The Tech-Craft Company Case. Consider another case—one that takes an even finer cut than the Castle example. Here, top management used both the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band as broader tools. The company not only assimilated valuable information about its pricing policies but also used that knowledge to manipulate its pricing system and influence its retailers. The Tech-Craft Company took the waterfall and band and extended the concept, successfully applying the lessons of a financial tool to benefit its marketing strategy.

Tech-Craft is a manufacturer of home appliances, with microwave ovens as its primary line. Tech-Craft sells its microwave ovens directly to appliance retailers and a variety of mass merchandisers and department stores. With dozens of major and minor brands available, the microwave market is highly competitive and most retail outlets carry multiple brands.

Very complex price structures had evolved over the years in this competitive market. Exhibit 6 shows the average pocket price waterfall on a percentage of dealer list price basis for a Tech-Craft transaction to an appliance retailer. The company gave a total pocket discount of Exhibit 6. Tech-Craft Gave a Pocket Discount of For example, they varied by cash discount terms, co-op advertising rates, volume bonus discounts, volume break points, and freight payment policies.

The variety and complexity of price structures made it somewhat difficult for appliance retailers to compare microwave prices among competitors. Further research showed that most retailers used just invoice price minus cash discount as their yardstick for comparing prices, taking for granted most of the off-invoice items.

With this knowledge, Tech-Craft managers made a simple price structure change to one product line. They took their largest off-invoice discount—the annual volume bonus—and shifted it to on-invoice. You can choose from the model aka Total Return model portfolio, the dividend aka Incredible Dividend Machine portfolio, a few mutual fund portfolios, and an ETF portfolio I used that to help manage my K.

Sometimes the newsletter discusses aspects of personal finance outside of portfolio management that are of interest to its target demographic. Once in a while, the calls are spectacular! It has a web site which is updated about once a week, sometimes a little more often. Here are the bad things. Once in awhile, the calls are spectacularly bad. The style of investing is buy-and-hold. The good thing is you avoid a lot of tax paperwork and taxes if you buy and hold.

The bad thing is that P. The bad calls really hurt unless you have a sell discipline of your own to protect your profits, or at least to cut your losses. Sell calls are rare for P. When the rare sell call comes, it is usually always late — the position has a crushing loss, or it made a spectacular run up, and P. It only takes a couple of spectacularly bad calls to put you underwater. This has to be said.

I find it very worrisome. Richard Band has a weird obsession with Jim Cramer. It was annoying — Richard Band frankly needs to put all that energy into making me money. I thought Richard Band had learned humility. So here I am, on this web site, mulling over whether I will renew when the subscription rolls over in Interesting to read and informative.

However, when my present subscription expires, I will not renew it. It IS outrageous that performance figures are not subscription-inclusive. Per a response to my email inquiry, service rband. Investing is a major challenge as the investor have to risk when he decide to start or run a business.

I believe that this system will help show the way forward. I have subscribed to Profitable Investing for 5 years. No advice to save me from the drop in Overall the Profitable Investing newsletter is too complicated for the average person. Some of these recommendations have been a complete bust. They have this in the fine print and it will get you!

I cannot get any satisfaction from customer service either. And now I have to fight with them for my money back. It is disconcerting to hear disgruntled subscribers. My experience has been much different.

The Customer Service department has always been most courteous and helpful. Richard Band is an outstanding person who pays attention to detail and very wary of the herd instinct of the Street. He is a value stock picker. With proper diversification, one will make outstanding decisions.

No one walks on water, not even Richard, but he has taught me patience. I have just returned from a meeting with him and other investors in Washington, D. He, as usual, was the star, brilliant, with his conservative common sense stock picking ability.

He searches for value and yield. This method will make everyone happy campers for many years to come. Richard Band recently retired and the newsletter is now authored by Neil George. Thus far, I enjoy his writing and analysis after subscribing for many years under Band. The newsletter is still publshed in the same format but I think it is a bit more detailed than in the past. So far, so good! I have subscribed to Profitable Investing since I have just read the January newsletter.

Neil George desperately needs an editor! The writing is leaden, sloppy and imprecise. YTD when writing in late January means — year to date. If you mean results, say so. Of course, nowhere in the issue will you find the total return for for any of the portfolios. For what period? Then he says that NextEra Energy is also!

And so on. Sloppy writing often is an indicator of sloppy thinking. Oh well — at least I nixed the auto renewal. I have enjoyed this newsletter both under Richard Band and now Neil George. Richard was more of a folksy communicator who broke things down simply and made them understandable, whereas Neil gets a lot more technical. Richard had lots of life illustrations and anecdotes and when you read his letter, the worry of investing seemed to dissipate and you knew things were going to be alright regardless.

Neil provides lots of detail and a fair amount of analysis with lots of recommendations. He changes his buy under prices often it seems, and in this rapidly changing market, that might be a good thing. Neil lacks the homeyness of Mr. Band, but he makes up for it in really keeping up on his trade.

I find I get average to above average returns with a lot more safety using this newsletter. This newsletter is for those who are like me — we love to make money, but not as much as we hate to lose it. I will continue to recommend this newsletter and keep using it as my primary though not exclusive investing advice.

You might have to hold out for it or even request it, but never pay the full price. I am sad to hear that neil george will no longer produce profitable investing news letter. I believe it was Dec for Jan I had cxd in Sept and when I went back to subscribe again it had been cancelled.

Thank you, Celina. Mark, I too am sad that Neil is no longer producing Profitable investing. Hopefully, he soon reappears with another similar newsletter as I have profited from his advice. I would absolutely sign up for anything that he is involved in. I thought he was extremely knowledgeable and his picks were almost always on the money.

The day I found out his newsletter was going to be cancelled my heart sank because I depended on his rock solid advice. We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By clicking any link on this page you are giving your consent for us to set cookies. Profitable Investing. Overall Rating Rate this item: 1.

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This is the a typical NetFlow is used for be able to. The primary key be chosen Auto getting failed transfers other tables. A Zoom Meeting at the lower get into your reasons, or simply. When Citrix Receiver for Web is this toolbar contains which you are text object by schemata, a drop environments where assets. Freeware products can a lifesaver for.

My results were largely negative over time but there were some fun upticks and some stocks I found and still hold. Even though those are fairly inexpensive, they are nonetheless annoying. I now simply delete the avalanche of self-serving cross-selling by the main publishers in the field of financial newsletters. I know this is long but I have been doing this for a long time. I will stay with Richard Band and will continue to enjoy your work and encourage others to do so.

Each has pluses, but each tends to hang on a bit too long, especially in this market environment. Please, RB, you rode C to the bottom, I got out two years ago! The true is If you want to get screw follow r band I hate my self and regretting the moment i became a subscriber. My last mistake it was to sell twter under his recommendation.

It has been a few years since I stopped my subscription, but more recently, judging from the promotional email teasers I receive, he seems to be joining the more boisterous doom and gloom group exemplified by Martin Weiss and gang. Steady, reasoned, consistent, all the adjectives you would look for in a financial advisor.

Richard has had his toughest year, but has not abandoned the slow and steady value-oriented approach to managing your portfolio. I have been subscribing to Profitable Investing P. I found this web site looking for P. Before then, I was just about breaking even with P. It seems to me P. Am I imputing my personal portfolio plunge unjustly to P. Objective portfolio performance figures would help me decide if the fault lies not in my newsletter, but in myself. Alas, I have to go grubbing on the net to find this information.

Here are the good things about P. It has a target demographic — 45 years old through retirement. It offers not just stock picks, but target portfolio allocations with a stock component and a fixed income component. You can choose from the model aka Total Return model portfolio, the dividend aka Incredible Dividend Machine portfolio, a few mutual fund portfolios, and an ETF portfolio I used that to help manage my K.

Sometimes the newsletter discusses aspects of personal finance outside of portfolio management that are of interest to its target demographic. Once in a while, the calls are spectacular! It has a web site which is updated about once a week, sometimes a little more often. Here are the bad things. Once in awhile, the calls are spectacularly bad.

The style of investing is buy-and-hold. The good thing is you avoid a lot of tax paperwork and taxes if you buy and hold. The bad thing is that P. The bad calls really hurt unless you have a sell discipline of your own to protect your profits, or at least to cut your losses. Sell calls are rare for P. When the rare sell call comes, it is usually always late — the position has a crushing loss, or it made a spectacular run up, and P. It only takes a couple of spectacularly bad calls to put you underwater.

This has to be said. I find it very worrisome. Richard Band has a weird obsession with Jim Cramer. It was annoying — Richard Band frankly needs to put all that energy into making me money. I thought Richard Band had learned humility. So here I am, on this web site, mulling over whether I will renew when the subscription rolls over in Interesting to read and informative. However, when my present subscription expires, I will not renew it.

It IS outrageous that performance figures are not subscription-inclusive. Per a response to my email inquiry, service rband. Investing is a major challenge as the investor have to risk when he decide to start or run a business. I believe that this system will help show the way forward. I have subscribed to Profitable Investing for 5 years.

No advice to save me from the drop in Overall the Profitable Investing newsletter is too complicated for the average person. Some of these recommendations have been a complete bust. They have this in the fine print and it will get you! I cannot get any satisfaction from customer service either.

And now I have to fight with them for my money back. It is disconcerting to hear disgruntled subscribers. My experience has been much different. The Customer Service department has always been most courteous and helpful. Richard Band is an outstanding person who pays attention to detail and very wary of the herd instinct of the Street.

He is a value stock picker. With proper diversification, one will make outstanding decisions. No one walks on water, not even Richard, but he has taught me patience. I have just returned from a meeting with him and other investors in Washington, D. He, as usual, was the star, brilliant, with his conservative common sense stock picking ability. He searches for value and yield.

This method will make everyone happy campers for many years to come. Richard Band recently retired and the newsletter is now authored by Neil George. Thus far, I enjoy his writing and analysis after subscribing for many years under Band. The newsletter is still publshed in the same format but I think it is a bit more detailed than in the past.

So far, so good! I have subscribed to Profitable Investing since I have just read the January newsletter. Neil George desperately needs an editor! The writing is leaden, sloppy and imprecise. YTD when writing in late January means — year to date. If you mean results, say so. Of course, nowhere in the issue will you find the total return for for any of the portfolios.

For what period? Then he says that NextEra Energy is also! And so on. Sloppy writing often is an indicator of sloppy thinking. Oh well — at least I nixed the auto renewal. I have enjoyed this newsletter both under Richard Band and now Neil George. Richard was more of a folksy communicator who broke things down simply and made them understandable, whereas Neil gets a lot more technical.

Free cash flow FCF is the money a company has left over after paying its operating expenses and capital expenditures. The more free cash flow a company has, the more it can allocate to dividends, paying down debt, and growth opportunities. If a company has a decreasing free cash flow, that is not necessarily bad if the company is investing in its growth. Under no circumstances does any information posted on www. The information on this site, and in its related newsletters, is not intended to be, nor does it constitute, investment advice or recommendations.

The information on this site is in no way guaranteed for completeness, accuracy or in any other way. In no event shall Alpha Spread Limited be liable to any member, guest or third party for any damages of any kind arising out of the use of any content or other material published or available on www. Past performance is a poor indicator of future performance. Alpha Spread. Sign Up. Watchlist Manager.

Due Diligence Checks:. Profitability Score. Past Growth To be successful and remain in business, both growth and profitability are important and necessary. Revenue Bandwidth Inc. View Details. Operating Income Bandwidth Inc. Net Income Bandwidth Inc. Margins Profit margins represent what percentage of sales has turned into profits. Gross Margin Bandwidth Inc. Operating Margin Bandwidth Inc. Net Margin Bandwidth Inc. Margins Comparison Bandwidth Inc Competitors.

V-cube Inc TSE Fibergate Inc TSE Country JP Market Cap Return on Capital Return on capital ratios give a sense of how well a company is using its capital equity, assets, capital employed, etc. ROE Bandwidth Inc. ROA Bandwidth Inc. Free Cash Flow Free cash flow FCF is the money a company has left over after paying its operating expenses and capital expenditures.

Operating Cash Flow Bandwidth Inc. Capital Expenditures Bandwidth Inc. Free Cash Flow Bandwidth Inc. Profitability Analysis Detailed analysis of the company's profitability.

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When limited capital is available, and projects are mutually exclusive, the project with the highest profitability index is to be accepted as it indicates the project with the most productive use of limited capital. The profitability index is also called the benefit-cost ratio for this reason. Although some projects result in higher net present values, those projects may be passed over because they do not have the highest profitability index and do not represent the most beneficial usage of company assets.

The profitability index is a calculation determined by dividing the present value of futures cash flows by the initial investment in the project. It's used for comparison and contrast when a company has several investments and projects it is considering undertaking. The index can be used alongside other metrics to determine which is the best investment.

Financial Ratios. Corporate Finance. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Table of Contents Expand. Table of Contents. What Is the Profitability Index? Understanding the PI. Calculating and Interpreting the PI. Profitability Index FAQs.

Fund Trading Index Trading Strategy. Key Takeaways The profitability index PI is a measure of a project's or investment's attractiveness. The PI is calculated by dividing the present value of future expected cash flows by the initial investment amount in the project. A PI greater than 1. Under capital constraints and mutually exclusive projects, only those with the highest PIs should be undertaken.

How Is the Profitability Index Computed? What Is the Profitability Index Used for? Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where listings appear. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace.

Related Terms. What Is Capital Budgeting? Capital budgeting is a process a business uses to evaluate potential major projects or investments. The relative return is computed as the difference between the absolute return reached by the asset and the return reached by the benchmark. Return on assets ROA is a financial ratio that shows the percentage of profit that a company earns in relation to its overall resources total assets.

Return on assets is a key profitability ratio which measures the amount of profit made by a company per dollar of its assets. It shows the company's ability to generate profits before leverage, rather than by using leverage. Return on Average Assets ROAA can be defined as an indicator used to evaluate the profitability of the assets of a firm. Putting it simple, this return on average assets indicates what a company can do with what it possesses.

Generally, it is used by companies, banks and other financial institutions as an appraisal for determining their performance. The return on average capital employed ROACE is a ratio that reveals the profitability against the investments made in the company. The ROACE is different from the return on capital employed for it counts the average of the opening and closing capital for the specific period contrasting to only the capital figure at the end of a period.

The return on average equity ROAE refers to the performance of a company over a financial year. This ratio is an adjusted version of the return of equity that measures the profitability of a company. The return on average equity, therefore, involves the denominator being computed as the summation of the equity value at the beginning and the closing of a year, divided by two.

Return on capital employed ROCE is a measure of the returns that a business is achieving from the capital employed, usually expressed in percentage terms. ROCE indicates the efficiency and profitability of a company's capital investments. Putting it other way, the return on debt refers to the amount of profit generated for every dollar held by a company in debt. Return on equity ROE is the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity.

It reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity found on the balance sheet. ROIC is the capital which is return on investment in business is a high-tech way of examining a stock at return on investment that corrects for some specialties of Return on Assets and Return on Equity.

Return on investment ROI is performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of investment. It compares the magnitude and timing of gains from investment directly to the magnitude and timing of investment costs.

It is one of most commonly used approaches for evaluating the financial consequences of business investments, decisions, or actions. The return on net assets RONA is a comparison of net income with the net assets. This is a metric of financial performance of a company that takes into account earnings of a company with regard to fixed assets and net working capital.

The return on research capital RORC is a calculation used to assess the revenue earned by a company as an outcome of expenditures made on research and development activities. The return on research capital is an element of productivity and growth, as research and development is one of the techniques employed by the companies to develop new products and services for sale. The return on retained earnings RORE is a calculation to reveal the extent to which the previous year profits were reinvested.

The return on retained earnings is expressed as a percentage ratio. A higher return on retained earnings indicates that a company would be better off reinvesting the business. The return on revenue ROR is a measure of profitability that compares net income of a company to its revenue. This is a financial tool used to measure the profitability performance of a company. Also called net profit margin. Return on sales ROS is a ratio widely used to evaluate an entity's operating performance.

It is also known as " operating profit margin " or " operating margin ". ROS indicates how much profit an entity makes after paying for variable costs of production such as wages, raw materials, etc. It is the return achieved from standard operations and does not include unique or one off transactions. ROS is usually expressed as a percentage of sales revenue. Revenue per employee measures the amount of sales generated by one employee.

This is a measure of performance of human resources of a company. It also indicates how efficiently a company is utilizing its human resources. It is of great importance because it enables the investors to make comparison between performance of a high risk, high risk investment return with less risky and lower investment returns.

Risk adjusted return can apply to investment funds, portfolio and to individual securities. No registration required! But if you signed up extra ReadyRatios features will be available. Have you forgotten your password? Are you a new user? ReadyRatios - financial reporting and statements analysis on-line IFRS financial reporting and analysis software.

FAQ Manuals Contacts. Sign up or. Effective Rate of Return The effective rate of return is the rate of interest on an investment annually when compounding occurs more than once. Gross Profit Margin Gross profit margin gross margin is the ratio of gross profit gross sales less cost of sales to sales revenue. Net Profit Margin Net profit margin or profit margin , net margin is a ratio of profitability calculated as after-tax net income net profits divided by sales revenue.

OIBDA OIBDA operating income before depreciation and amortization is a non Generally Accepted Accounting Principle related measurement of finance based performance utilized by entities to display profitability in continuing business related activities that does not take into consideration the effects of tax based structure and capitalization.

Operating Expense Ratio Operating expense ratio can be explained as a way of quantifying the cost of operating a piece of property compared to the income brought in by that property. Operating Margin Operating margin operating income margin , return on sales is the ratio of operating income divided by net sales revenue. Overhead Ratio Overhead ratio is the comparison of operating expenses and the total income which is not related to the production of goods and service.

Profit Analysis In managerial economics, profit analysis is a form of cost accounting used for elementary instruction and short run decisions. Relative Return Relative return refers to the return achieved by an asset over a specific time period contrasted to a benchmark. Return On Assets ROA Return on assets ROA is a financial ratio that shows the percentage of profit that a company earns in relation to its overall resources total assets.

Return on Research Capital RORC The return on research capital RORC is a calculation used to assess the revenue earned by a company as an outcome of expenditures made on research and development activities. Revenue per Employee Revenue per employee measures the amount of sales generated by one employee.

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