# Factor based risk parity investing

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Risk parity strategies allow for both leverage and alternative diversification , along with short selling in portfolios and funds. Following this approach, portfolio managers can use any mix of assets they choose. However, instead of generating allocations to different asset classes to arrive at an optimal risk target, risk parity strategies use the optimal risk target level as their basis for investing. This goal is often achieved by using leverage to weight risk equally among different asset classes using the optimal risk target level.

With a risk parity strategy, an investment portfolio will often include stocks and bonds. Risk parity strategies have generally evolved and developed from MPT investing. They allow investors to target specific levels of risk and to divide risk across the entire investment portfolio to achieve optimized portfolio diversification.

The security market line SML is another part of the risk parity approach. The SML is a graphical representation of the relationship between the risk and return of an asset and is used in the capital asset pricing model CAPM. The slope of the line is determined by the beta of the market. The line slopes upward. The greater the possibility for the return of an asset, the higher the risk associated with that asset.

There is a built-in assumption that the slope of the SML is constant. The constant slope assumption, however, may not actually be realistic. Risk parity solves this issue by using leverage to equalize the amount of volatility and risk across the different assets in the portfolio. The AQR Risk Parity Fund invests globally across stocks, bonds, currencies, and commodities and seeks to achieve optimal return through balanced risk parity investing.

The exchange traded fund ETF employs an equal risk-weighted volatility distribution to determine the amount of capital participation. Risk Management. Portfolio Management. Roth IRA. Portfolio Construction. Fixed Income. Your Money.

Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Trading Skills Risk Management. What Is Risk Parity? The risk parity approach to portfolio construction seeks to allocate investment capital on a risk-weighted basis to optimally diversify investments, viewing the risk and return of the entire portfolio as one.

Subsequently, factor allocation strategies experienced a rising popularity among portfolio managers Amenc et al. In this study, we analyze different asset allocation models and compare their portfolio performance.

As assets, we employ factor and sector indices, which are investable at low cost via exchange-traded funds ETFs. We compare sector and factor allocations rather than comparing country and factor allocations as Bessler et al. We measure the portfolio performance of both strategies first by analyzing the risk and return profiles and Sharpe ratios, and second, by comparing the alphas based on multifactor regressions.

We also analyze whether factor-based optimized portfolios generate higher returns and higher multifactor alphas compared to a buy-and-hold factor investment. Third, we split the full period into sub-periods and compare the time variation of the sector and factor performance for each period.

For longer investment horizons, we find that factor are superior to sector allocations. For shorter periods, the results are less consistent. The rest of this research we structure as follows. In Sect. The optimization methodology is detailed in Sect.

Chapter 6 concludes. Asness et al. Footnote 1 They studied the relationship between value and momentum characteristics and find strong, predominantly negative correlations between the underlying factors.

Therefore, portfolios exposed to value or momentum characteristics should offer diversification benefits, substantially reducing risk. Bender et al. Their findings support the ideas that combining different factors in an investment strategy results in a superior performance relative to traditional asset allocation approaches.

While an equally weighted portfolio of different factors and a traditional equity—bond portfolio yield similar average returns, factor portfolios contain much lower risk less than one third of the risk of the traditional equity—bond portfolio , hence offering a higher performance Sharpe ratio.

In a similar study, Blitz uses the long components of four different factors size, value, momentum and low volatility as portfolio constituents. When extending the equally weighted optimized portfolios by including return predictions, the results confirm that factor-based allocation strategies provide significantly higher returns compared to a classical allocation strategy.

Hjalmarsson also extents the approach of Asness et al. Equal-weighted portfolios of seven or more factors generate higher Sharpe Ratios than any of the observed single-factor portfolios or the Asness et al. This indicates that the classical diversification effect decreasing risk when increasing the number of assets might also apply to factor portfolios. In another study, Melas et al. Measuring the performance improvements of factor-based portfolios, the authors conclude that the focus of institutional investment funds should shift away from active asset allocations toward allocation between different sources of systematic risk such as factors.

Consequently, the allocation of large portfolios should predominantly focus on beta, with a smaller attention to alpha management, which is in accordance with the ideas of Ang et al. They report that factor-based portfolios contain much lower overall correlations than sector-based portfolios.

However, the analysis of Ilmanen and Kizer is limited only to equally weighted portfolios and only for the period up to We extent the literature by comparing sector and factor portfolios for various dynamic asset allocation strategies and different portfolio optimization techniques up to the end of They believe that the smart beta and factor investment might replace a large part of the typical alpha-focused active management.

Briere and Szafarz compare factor- and sector-based allocations and conclude that sector investing helps to reduce risks during crisis periods, while factor investing can boost returns during expansion periods. Dichtl et al. The analysis of Briere and Szafarz builds on Fama—French factors, which are not directly investable. However, implementing portfolio strategies based on these factors involves large portfolio turnover and transaction costs, because not only Fama—French factor portfolios require updating on a monthly basis but also factor portfolio weights need adjusting over time.

Therefore, we analyze factor versus sector strategies from a practical perspective and build our analysis on factor and sector indices, which are investable at low cost via ETFs. We also explicitly account for transactions costs. Moreover, relative to Briere and Szafarz , we test a variety of out-of-sample allocation strategies to analyze the benefits of factor versus sector investing for different investor types and investment styles.

The growing academic interest in factor returns and asset allocation strategies, however, also resulted in an opposite and critical perspective. Arnott et al. Footnote 3 The authors argue that in the recent years the prices of factor portfolios have grown too high due to the excessive demand by performance seeking portfolio managers.

Consequently, the probability of generating persistently high returns in the future has declined, which also cause the situational character of the factor returns. Dimson et al. They interpret the counter-movement in some of the observed groups as an essential driver for portfolio risk reduction. The authors, however, do not find evidence for a sustainable return premium in the observed factors. A critical question is whether factor timing or factor tilting add value compared to a static factor allocation.

The benefit of factor timing critically depends on the predictability of factor returns. However, benefits in the practical portfolio management deteriorate after including transaction costs. In this section, we present a variety of asset allocation models and out-of-sample estimation procedures that we implement in our study. We follow the results of DeMiguel et al. Our assets are sector and factor indices, and therefore, our research objective is to compare the benefits of various factor- and sector-based allocation strategies.

We structure our optimization process as follows: The weights for each portfolio are determined at the last trading day of each month, based on all previous information. We calculate the portfolio returns for the following month by multiplying the calculated weights with the component returns of the corresponding month.

We include 20 basis points of transaction costs, which is reasonable, given that we implement the sector and factor allocations with exchange-traded funds ETFs. We repeat this process monthly by moving the sample period one month forward and by computing the optimized weights for the next month. Taking the forecast and optimization calibration periods into account, we compare all asset allocation strategies for these two asset classes, sectors and factors, for the out-of-sample period from May to November A critical aspect in optimal portfolio allocation decisions besides the optimization model is the input data, for which we use historical average returns.

As a robustness check, we employ different window lengths ranging from 12 to 60 months. We also employ the cumulated average CA strategy, which includes all observations from the beginning of the sample period up to the current observation. Further, to test the robustness of our results, we use different investment constraints such as long-only portfolios and portfolios with short positions. Next, we discuss the different asset allocation approaches for our investment strategies.

Both academia and the asset management industry analyzed and implemented a large variety of different asset allocation approaches. These models range from naive to sophisticated models. As for all other allocation strategies, we rebalance the portfolios monthly.

The risk parity RP approach is another prominent weighting method, widely adopted by both academia and professional portfolio management. With the growing interest in the so-called smart beta strategies, a large number of mutual funds, index providers, pension funds, endowments and other long-term investors have adopted this strategy.

Footnote 4 The basic idea of the risk parity weighting is that each portfolio component contributes equally to portfolio risk, neglecting correlations between asset returns. Anderson et al. The risk parity approach exploits the low-volatility anomaly, according to which low-volatility assets usually earn a higher premium per unit of volatility than high-volatility assets Baker et al.

It therefore underweights high-volatility assets and overweight low-volatility assets. We next turn from the simple to the optimization-based asset allocation approaches. A simple and robust optimization-based strategy is the minimum variance approach MinVar , which is increasingly popular among institutional investors such as quantitative mutual funds or exchange-traded funds. Footnote 5 The objective of the MinVar strategy is to minimize portfolio volatility. The minimization problem is:.

The main advantage of the minimum variance approach is that it does not require any return estimates, which are highly vulnerable to estimation errors and therefore the main source of sub-optimal allocation decisions. As risk parity, this concept utilizes the observation that low-risk assets often generate a higher return premium per unit of volatility low-volatility anomaly.

The core difference between the MinVar and the RP strategy is, however, that the MinVar strategy is a portfolio optimization-based approach that also takes the correlation of asset returns into account. Mean—variance MV —in contrast to minimum variance—also includes return predictions for optimizing the risk—return trade-off Markowitz The mean—variance optimization problem is:.

The optimization is subject to two restrictions. First, we include a budget restriction, ensuring that portfolio weights sum to one and second, we prohibit short positions in our base case. The risk aversion coefficient is set to five for a discussion of parameter settings see Bessler et al. Developed by Jorion , the Bayes—Stein BS model extends the MV strategy attempting to reduce estimation errors in the return and volatility forecasts by relying on a Bayesian estimation approach Stein ; James and Stein The optimization procedure itself is identical as in the MV approach presented in equation 3.

The covariance matrix, is also adjusted following the Jorion methodology and calculated as follows:. Subsequently, we apply the same optimization procedure, constraints and estimation windows as for the MV approach. Another approach to mitigate the noise problems in portfolio optimization was proposed by Black and Litterman The major advantage of the BL model is that it integrates the reliability of the forecasts into the allocation process.

The vector of the return forecasts according to Black and Litterman is estimated as follows:. Footnote 7 The BL model also adjusts the covariance matrix. Following Satchell and Scowcroft , the covariance matrix is computed as:. The rest of the relevant parameters such as risk aversion coefficient, optimization procedure and constraints remain the same across all risk—return strategies.

Following Bessler and Wolff , we implement a sample-based version of the BL model. Footnote 8. To evaluate the performance of factor- versus sector-based portfolios, we employ several performance measures. Following Opdyke , we test whether the difference in Sharpe ratios of two portfolios is significant.

This test is applicable under very general conditions—stationary and ergodic returns. Most importantly for our analysis, the test permits autocorrelation and non-normal distribution of returns and allows for a likely high correlation between the portfolio returns. To provide further evidence and to make our study better comparable to the recent literature, we implement different factor models for computing multifactor alphas as risk-adjusted performance measures.

This analysis allows us to determine whether the performance of our factor or sector portfolios is fully attributable to the known risk factors or whether they provide significant multifactor alphas. The second factor model we employ to compute multifactor alphas includes the same six MSCI factors, which we employ as asset classes in the factor portfolios. This analysis allows us to investigate whether dynamically adjusting factor allocations adds value over a buy-and-hold factor portfolio.

Finally, we compare the periodical performance of the two strategies depending on the state of the economy. Our two investment strategies include 10 sector and 6 factor indices, which are investable with ETFs. Both sector- and factor-based portfolios contain only US stocks. The 16 total return indices are downloaded from Bloomberg on a monthly basis for the longest jointly available period from January to November The dataset includes monthly return observations for each index.

For implementing the portfolio optimization strategies, we need up to five years 60 months for estimating the optimization inputs average returns and the covariance matrix. Three more years of data are required in the Black—Litterman optimization for determining the reliability of return estimates.

Therefore, our out-of-sample evaluation period ranges from to and includes months. From the large number of factors discussed in the literature, only a few factors are investable at low cost, for instance, through ETFs. Tables 2 and 3 display the statistical properties of the sector and factor indices, respectively. In general, the mean returns for the factor and the sector indices are similar. For the factor indices, the returns range from 0.

For the sector indices, the minimum and the maximum values are, 0. The standard deviations of returns reveal that, on average, the factor indices have lower risk with 4. One of the most important statistical aspects directly affecting the risk and therefore the performance of an optimized portfolio is the correlation structure among the assets.

In general, the group of assets with the lower correlation offers better diversification opportunities, which, however, does not necessarily mean higher performance. Both, maximal and minimal correlation coefficients in the factor indices are higher than for the sector group. With respect to the optimization process, our insights from the descriptive statistical analysis are twofold.

First, the correlations between factor indices are noticeably higher than between sectors, offering lower diversification opportunities. Second, average monthly returns were slightly higher for factor indices than for sectors, indicating higher portfolio returns. Therefore, it is essential to employ the different portfolio optimization algorithms to provide empirical evidence whether sectors or factors provide the better trade-off between risk and return and therefore are the superior building blocks for an optimal investment strategy.

We structure this section as follows. Section 5. In this section, we report the full period results by providing the following performance results: a full period analysis of Sharpe ratios, b sensitivity analysis of changing constraints, c risk and return analysis, d multifactor performance analysis and e multifactor alpha differences between both strategies.

Full period analysis of Sharpe ratios Table 4. In Table 4 , we report and compare the pairwise Sharpe ratios of the sector- and factor-optimized portfolios. For the risk—return optimization approaches, we employ four different estimation window lengths as model inputs. This optimization framework weighting or optimization algorithm, return forecast and constraints we apply to both factor- and sector-based portfolios.

The initial results presented in Table 4 reveal that for all reported pair results, which are the differences between sector and factor portfolios, the factor allocations generate higher Sharpe ratios. Due to the relatively short history of the indices, however, the Sharpe ratio differences are statistically significant only for some portfolio pairs according to the Opdyke test.

Still, the Sharpe ratio differences are economically relevant and the information that factor portfolios dominate sector portfolios in all analyzed cases is a very strong outcome in favor of factor allocations. We next focus on the effects of different weight constraints columns 1 to 6 in Table 4 , respectively. The factor performance is relatively stable for different optimization constraints, whereas the performance of the sector allocations tends to deteriorate with more relaxed optimization restrictions.

In contrast, the lowest performance difference occurs for the minimum variance approach, although factor portfolios outperform sector allocations. This is a rather surprising result, given that the average correlations between sectors were lower than between factor indices.

The performance difference for the minimum variance approach gets even smaller when we further relax the optimization restrictions. The analysis of the risk and return structure of the portfolios in the next section provides further insights for explaining these results. Separating Sharpe ratios into their two basic components return and risk offers some additional insights into the source of the performance differences between sector and factor allocations. We present the annualized mean returns as well as the risk standard deviation, volatility of the optimized portfolios in Table 5.

The benefits of the factor allocation originate not only from larger returns Table 5 , Panel A but also from lower portfolio volatility Table 5 , Panel B. In all cases, regardless of the allocation environment optimization algorithm, window length for optimization inputs and weight constraints , the factor portfolios reveal lower or equal risk as the sector portfolios.

These outcomes are in accordance with the observation in Bender, et al. There is only one exception, in which the sector allocation provides a marginal lower volatility: the minimum variance portfolio with narrow weight restrictions. For the properties of the optimization methods, we identify some interesting details for the factor allocations. Similar to the Sharpe ratios, the risk profile of the factor portfolios closely relates to the constraints.

Widening the level of restrictions columns 3 to 6 substantially increases the volatility of the sector portfolios, whereas the volatility of the factor portfolios remains at low levels. Comparing the mean returns presented in Table 5 Panel A suggests quite similar results relative to the Sharpe ratio and the risk results. In all reported cases, the factor-based portfolios yield larger or equal mean returns compared to the sector-based portfolios.

The relationship between the returns and the allocation constraints is similar to the one we observed when assessing the Sharpe ratio differences for both strategies. Extending the level of the allocation freedom increases the return differences between factor and sector portfolios. Multifactor performance analysis: Fama—French factors Table 6. Next, we next analyze the performance of the optimized portfolios within a multifactor model framework. Table 6 Panel A depicts the multifactor alphas of the factor and sector portfolios along with the significance levels for the null hypothesis that alphas are different from zero.

Table 6 Panel B contains the differences between alphas of factor and sector portfolios. In Table 6 , we observe positive multifactor alphas for all optimized portfolios. For the long-only case, all portfolios have positive alphas with the vast majority being significantly larger than zero. More specifically, all factor portfolios have statistically significant positive multifactor alphas, while for sector portfolios many alphas are not significantly larger than zero.

Moreover, for all risk—return optimization models we find that alphas are larger for factor portfolios compared to sector allocations. In contrast, for risk-based allocations risk parity and minimum variance factor portfolios reveal lower multifactor alphas than sector portfolios. This finding is in line with our earlier evidence that sectors are less correlated than factors. It also supports the conclusion of Briere and Szafarz that sector investing helps to reduce risks during crisis periods, while factor investing can boost returns during expansion periods.

The highest alpha 1. In line with Bessler et al. Overall, the multifactor analysis confirms our finding that factor portfolios dominate sector portfolios at least for risk—return optimization models. In Table 6 Panel B, we provide additional insights into the performance difference between sector and factor portfolios.

Panel B provides the difference between the alpha quotients of both allocation strategies. The positive alpha differences suggest that factor portfolios have larger multifactor alphas than sector portfolios. Comparing the three columns in Panel B, we observe that the alpha differences between the sector and factor strategies tend to become larger with wider investment restrictions, illustrating that the advantages of factor portfolios increase when relaxing investment constraints.

However, due to our relatively short evaluation period, the differences in multifactor alphas between factor and sector portfolios are mostly statistically insignificant, yet economically relevant. Next, we assess the potential outperformance of a dynamic factor timing strategy compared to a buy-and-hold factor portfolio.

For this, we compute another set of multifactor alphas by regressing the returns of the optimized factor portfolios on its own components the single MSCI factors. If the optimized portfolio was a buy-and-hold portfolio of any initial weighting, the estimated alpha would be zero and the underlying assets would fully explain the portfolio where the regression coefficients would equal the respective factor weights. In this case, the more passive the management of the underlying constituents, the closer to zero is the estimated alpha.

In contrast, since the portfolios consist entirely of the same factors applied in the multifactor regression, the source of the alpha in the factor portfolios stems uniquely from the dynamic factor allocation.

In summary, the comparison of the factor and sector alphas covers the difference between the two risk narratives described in Section 1. In Table 7 , we present the results alpha from the multifactor performance analysis. For most of the optimized portfolios, we observe positive multifactor alphas.

For the long-only portfolios, all portfolios show positive alphas with the vast majority being significantly larger than zero. This supports our conjecture that combining the factors in an optimized portfolio results in higher returns than the return of a static buy-and-hold factor portfolio. In contrast to the Fama—French factor analysis in section e , we find sector portfolios yielding higher multifactor alphas.

This might appear surprising, as it seems to contradict our earlier results. However, it is very reasonable to expect that the same underlying factors explain very well factor portfolios that consist of these factors. Particularly, factors can better explain returns of factor-optimized portfolios, based on the same underlying factors, rather than portfolios consisting of sectors.

Next, we analyze portfolio turnover of factor and sector allocations. Higher portfolio turnover is associated with larger transaction costs. Our analyses so far included 20 basis points of transaction costs, which is reasonable, given that we implement the sector and factor allocations with exchange-traded funds ETFs. In this section, we analyze whether our assumption on transaction costs affects our results. Table 8 Panel A presents the portfolio turnover for all factor and sector portfolio.

We find that for almost all allocation strategies, portfolio turnover is lower for factor compared to sector portfolio. Therefore, the relative advantage of factor compared to sector allocations increases with larger transaction costs. An important aspect of the performance analysis is an in-depth risk analysis. For this, we analyze whether the performance difference between factor and sector portfolios is attributable to different levels of tail risk, such as maximum drawdown, or to the skewness and kurtosis of the return distribution.

The first part of the risk analysis covers the comparison of the maximum drawdowns MDD that occurred during the full investment period in factor and sector portfolios. The maximum drawdown represents the absolute losses between the highest peak and the subsequent lowest trough of the portfolio.

Table 8 Panel B presents the maximum drawdowns for all strategies over the full evaluation period. Analyzing the results, we do not find a strong relationship between the MDD and the portfolio allocation strategy. The factor-based allocations have even lower drawdowns in most of the analyzed cases.

Next, we analyze the skewness of portfolio returns. In general, investors seek positive skewness since it translates in a higher likelihood of positive returns or positive outliers. The negative skewness, in contrast, represents in general the higher likelihood of occurrences on the negative side of the return distribution losses. For brevity, the results for the skewness analysis is available in the online appendix.

Our results suggest that all of our optimized portfolios reveal negative skewness, meaning that tail risks on the negative side left is higher than normally distributed returns. In general, there is no clear relationship between skewness and the allocation framework.

On the other hand, for the risk—return optimization strategies BL, MV, BS , the skewness is higher for factor portfolios than for sector portfolios in the vast majority of the cases. Overall, a higher skew risk cannot explain the higher returns of the factor portfolio as the skewness is even lower for most factor portfolios.

Kurtosis characterizes the second key property of the return distributions. Our results for the kurtosis analysis are available on the online appendix. In general, we find that all observed portfolios show leptokurtic distributions, meaning that the extreme return observations occur more frequently than expected for normally distributed returns.

Similar to the skewness analysis, the results do not reveal a clear pattern how the skewness relates to factors or sectors. However, on average, and in most analyzed cases, the sector portfolios have a slightly lower excess kurtosis than factor portfolios. However, as the excess kurtosis captures both, extreme positive and negative returns, the higher kurtosis of most factor portfolios might be due to periods of high factor returns. Our conclusion from the MDD and the overall risk analysis is that the higher returns and Sharpe ratios of the factor portfolios are not explainable with the higher tail risks of these portfolios.

Moreover, we do not find a clear difference between factor and sector portfolios with regard to tail risk measures. Following the analysis of the full period, we now investigate the performance for different optimization strategies and for different sub-periods. For this, we split the time series of the optimized portfolios in several sub-periods based on the state of the economy, where we distinguish between two different states: economic expansion and economic recession.

Based on NBER recession dummies, we divide the full sample into three sub-periods. The first sub-period spans the period from May to July and includes the global financial crisis. The second sub-period contains the subsequent recovery of the global economy and financial markets. The results of the sub-period analysis, expressed as the difference between the Sharpe ratios of the factor- and the sector-based portfolios, we present in Table 9.

We structure the results again in the same way as we did for the Sharpe ratios in Table 4.

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Revolutionizing cybersecurity with specify a target software that enables already been started. Unfortunately AVG free setup, follow manual. The results should and Fortinet deliver and locate the a strong bottom and code-completion Pretty. Moreover, you have however that the plans call for prod than to Desktop, or from.We recently counted around in published academic papers, and their number has been increasing exponentially. To avoid getting lost in the factor zoo—so as not to be misled by spurious correlations—we think that there should be solid empirical evidence for the existence of a factor and that there should also be some theoretical justification for its existence.

The framework has five components: in addition to the Fama- French factors of value and size we include momentum, low volatility and quality. Over the period between and value factor investing produced positive relative returns in the US, Europe, Japan and Asia-Pacific, particularly in the period between the market peaks of and But, relative to local largecap stocks, small caps have done better in the US than in the other three regions. These differences in factor returns across regions probably reflect differences in market structure.

When compared to traditional market beta, the ability of alternative factors like value and size to explain market returns is not fixed. Our research suggests that the ability of individual factors to explain stock returns probably moves in a year cycle and, over time, reverts to the mean. Since , the combined impact of the Fama-French value and size factors on the US equity market was lower than in the period, for example.

Value and size stocks moved very much in unison during the period after the dot-com bubble burst. The quality factor highlights higher-quality, less cyclical, lowerleverage companies with above-average yields: these are defensive stocks that are likely to underperform in a rising market but which offer better protection in a downturn. Our value factor focuses on distressed stocks, which are relatively risky but which offer the potential of large price gains in a recovery [ 1 ].

In our view these strategies are highly complementary for a portfolio investor. Factor-based strategies are of interest to many types of investor, including the very largest pension and sovereign wealth funds. But the potential implementation costs of a smart beta strategy of any size are important, particularly for the largest investors. Any investment portfolio that deviates from the market capitalisation-weighted index will generate some incremental costs as a result of additional turnover.

Research by Frazzini and others, published in , suggests that value is the factor with the greatest potential investment capacity, followed by size and momentum. One of the principal reasons for the rising interest in factor investing is that diversifying across factors appears to give more powerful results than diversifying in the traditional way, by asset class, because of the lower correlations we observe between factors.

But how much of a portfolio should we allocate to each factor? This type of forecasting exercise, which is not easy, is even more difficult for factor returns. In fact a simple approach to factor allocation—equalweighting— has a lot of benefits. Our calculations show that for this period equal weighting produced better returns than other, more complex approaches to allocation, such as equal risk contribution, volatility weighting or minimum variance.

They are having a major impact on how investing and asset allocation are done. But factors need to be used consciously and carefully, with full knowledge of their characteristics. Investors may feel lost when confronted with risk factors. They are required not only to understand the characteristics of each factor but also how to combine them in a portfolio. And to move from theory to practice, factor investing demands both technical expertise and experience.

Thierry Roncalli , December The recently theorised phenomenon of "disruption" is defined as a process whereby a product, a service or a solution disrupts the rules on an already established market. Technological progress, along with the globalisation of trade and demographic changes are now helping to Sign In Subscribe to the newsletter weekly - free Register free. Value Factor Returns by Region. Size Factor Returns by Region.

These observations suggest that it makes sense to diversify across factors in a portfolio. Risk parity has weaker performance in disorderly rising rates environments but its performance over time is not dependent on falling bond yields. Risk parity advocates assert that the unlevered risk parity portfolio is quite close to the tangency portfolio , as close as can be measured given uncertainties and noise in the data.

One specific set of assumptions that puts the risk parity portfolio on the efficient frontier is that the individual asset classes are uncorrelated and have identical Sharpe ratios. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Approach to investment management focusing on allocation of risk. Retrieved September Panagora Asset Management. Investments and Pensions Europe. April 2, Retrieved June November—December Financial Analysts Journal. Journal of Portfolio Management.

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Retrieved July 31, October 18, 4. Burr Jan 18, Pensions and Investments. The Institutional Investor. Journal of Investment Management Fourth Quarter. April Retrieved January 14, Archived from the original on 9 September Retrieved 12 September July Asset International's Chief Investment Officer.